Since Israel decided to pull out from Gaza in 2005, following a 38-year occupation, the strip has been subjected to near constant bombardment from the air. It has also acted as a base for various rocket attacks that have pounded Israel over the years.
– 3 January-March: Israeli raids kill four Palestinians as more rockets are fired on Israel.
– 11 – 13 March: Israeli strike kills three Islamic Jihad fighters after they fire a mortar round at troops.
– 11 June: Israeli air strike kills two Palestinians, including one child.
– June/early July: Israel steps up raids on Gaza after the abduction and murder of three Israeli teens in the West Bank.
– 8 July: Israel launched Operation Protective Edge, calls up 40,000 reservists and says it is thinking about a full on ground invasion. The campaign follows violence that erupted over the grisly murder of a Palestinian teen by Israeli settlers. Initial reports say 13 Palestinians are killed in air raids. The violence is quickly described as the worst since 2012.
– 24 December: A Palestinian child is killed and six Palestinians injured in Israeli raids after an Israeli citizen is killed in an attack at the border.
– 9-12 March: Israeli strike on Gaza City kill 25, 14 of them fighters. More than 250 rockets are fired at Israel.
– 18-23 June: An air strike kills two Islamic Jihad fighters, sparking five days of fighting in which Israel kills 15 Gazans, mostly fighters. Five Israelis are also wounded as 152 rockets from Gaza hit the south.
– 13-22 October: Around 15 Palestinians are killed, while more than 120 rockets are fired at Israel.
– 14-21 November: Operation Pillar of Defence is launched with a missile strike that kills top Hamas commander Ahmed Jaabari in Gaza City. Hundreds of Israeli raids and fighter rocket attacks over the next eight days kill 177 Palestinians and six Israelis. Most are civilians. An Egypt-brokered truced takes effect on 21 November.
– April: Around 20 Palestinians killed and more than 150 rockets are fired at Israel in the worst violence since January 2009.
– August: 26 Palestinians and one Israeli are killed in clashes days after the death of eight Israelis in attacks near Eilat in southern Israel.
– 31 May: Israeli raid on a Gaza-bound aid flotilla leaves 10 Turks dead.
– 27 February – 3 March: Eight months after Hamas takes control of Gaza, Operation Hot Winter is launched after an Israeli is killed in a rocket attack. More than 120 Palestinians are killed.
– 27 December: Israel launches Operation Cast Lead with a massive air assault on Hamas to halt fighter rocket attacks. The 22-day operation leaves 1,400 Palestinians and 13 Israelis dead.
– 28 June: Israel launches Operation Summer Rain, rolling troops into Gaza to free a captured soldier. He is released in October 2011 in exchange for around 1,000 Palestinian prisoners.
– 1-7 November: Operation Autumn Cloud, in which 56 Palestinians, half fighters, are killed. On 26 November the army ends five months of operations in Gaza, in which more than 400 Palestinians are killed.